THE LABOUR MARKET IN UKRAINE: CURRENT CHALLENGES
The effective functioning of the labour market in Ukraine depends, first of all, on the social and economic situation in the country, structural changes in the wourld and national economies are influencing. Globalization, increased competition, development of knowledge economy and information technologies, restructuring of the economy, accelerated economic growth, scientific and technological progress, informatization of society and state regulation have significant impact on the labour market. Long-term imperfection in the interaction between the labour market and the educational market has had a negative effect on both of them, causing the discrepancy between qualification standards and the requirements of the national economy, worsening the quality of staff training and aggravating the disbalance between labour supply and labour demand. This led to a decrease in labour productivity and competitiveness of domestic enterprises, the existence of part-time and unreported employment, the increase of structural and technological unemployment and the inability to provide innovative economic development. Structural changes in the world and national economies influence the formation of aggregate demand in the labour market for qualified specialists who have high level of intellectual potential and will be able to combine several professions. To overcome educational and qualification disbalance between the educational and labour markets, it is necessary to update educational standards and curricula, to apply new teaching methods and training techniques, to improve the mechanism of interaction between both markets. The employees who have unique competencies and are capable of creating innovative technologies and solutions will be in advantageous positions. Scientific and technological progress causes mass automation, robotization, computerization, digitization and, consequently, changes the employment structure significantly, thus posing serious challenges for the labour and educational markets. In a competitive environment, higher and vocational education should be flexible and focus on the future needs of the economy. State regulation of the labour market is an important area of development of the national economy and a necessary process, since it directly affects the expansion of employment opportunities, improving the welfare and living standards of the population. In the market economy environment the labour market should: provide the working population with the income which meets their social and economic needs; reduce social inequality in society and ensure social and economic stability; make the most of the country's labour potential.
2. A.M. Kolot (Eds), V.M. Danyliuk, O.O. Herasymenko (2017) Hidna pratsia: imperatyvy, ukrainski realii, mekhanizmy zabezpechennia[Decent work: imperatives, Ukrainian realitiy, mechanisms of providing]. Ministerstvo osvity i nauky Ukrainy, DVNZ «Kyiv. nats.ekon. un-t im. Vadyma Hetmana».504, Kyiv: KNEU [in Ukrainian].
3. Hrishnova O.A. (2014) Liudskyi, intelektualnyi i sotsialnyi kapital Ukrainy: sutnist, vzaiemozviazok, otsinka, napriamy rozvytku [Human, intellectual and social capital in Ukraine: essence, interconnection, evaluation, directions of development]. Sotsialno-trudovi vidnosyny: teoriia ta praktyka.1,(pp.34 – 42) [in Ukrainian].
4. Derzhavna sluzhba zainiatosti[State employment service].Retrieved from https://www.dcz.gov.ua/ [in Ukrainian].
5. Derzhavna sluzhba statystyky Ukrainy [State statistcs service of Ukraine]. Retrieved from https://www.ukrstat.gov.ua [in Ukrainian].
6. I. Vallerstaina, R. Kollinza, M. Manna, G. Derlugiana, K. Kalkhuna (2015) Iest li budushchee u kapitalizma? [Does the capitalism have the future?].(G. Derlugiana (Ed), M.: Izdvo In-ta Gaidara, (Trans.) [in Russian].
7. Ilich L.M. (2017) Vzaiemodiia rynkiv pratsi ta osvity: sutnist, kharakterni rysy ta model funktsionuvannia [Interaction between labour and educational markets: essence, characteristic features and the model of functioning]. 4, (pp.69 – 74) Ekonomika ta derzhava-Economy and the state. [in Ukrainian].
8. Kolot A.M., Herasymenko O.O. (2018) Novitni hlobalni tendentsii u sferi zayniatosti i dokhodiv ta yikh vplyv na sotsialnu nerivnist [Modern global tendencies in the sphere of employment and income and their influence on social inequality]. Sotsialno-trudovi vidnosyny: teoriia ta praktyka-Sociallabourrelations:theoryandpractice.1,pp.6 – 33 [in Ukrainian].
9. Konventsiia pro osnovni tsili ta normy sotsialnoi polityky № 117 [Convention on main goals and norms of social politics № 117]. Retrieved from https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/go/993_016
10. Kosovych B., Dmytruk V. (2014) Rynok pratsi v umovakh hlobalizatsii [Labour market in the context of globalization].Collected papers (51), (pp.376–383) Lviv National UniversityIvan Franko.[in Ukrainian].
11. Libanova E.M. (Red.) (2016) Liudskyi rozvytok v Ukraini. Innovatsiyni vydy zayniatosti ta perspektyvy yikh rozvytku: kol.monografiia [Human development in Ukraine. Innovational types of employment and the prospects of their development: collective monograph]Institute of Demography and Social. research. them. M. V. Ptukhy of NAS of Ukraine.Kiev:[in Ukrainian].
12. Libanova E.M. (Red.) (2017) Liudskyi rozvytok v Ukraini: instytutsiyne pidgruntia sotsialnoi vidpovidalnosti: kol. monografiia [Human development in Ukraine: institutional basis for social responsibility: collective monograph]Institute of Demography and Social. research. them. M. V. Ptukhy of NAS of Ukraine. Kiev: [in Ukrainian].