SOCIAL PROTECTION AND SOCIAL SECURITY DURING THE QUARANTINE PERIOD: A THEORETICAL ASPECT
Introduction. The problems of social protection and social security of the population are particularly acute during the crisis caused by the coronavirus. The shortage of the own financial resources and the difficulties with attracting external credit resources during the global economic slowdown have created new challenges for public authorities, which require complex solutions.
The purpose of the article. The purpose of the article was to substantiate theoretically concepts of "social protection" and "social security", to study the peculiarities of social protection of the population in emergency situations. The following research objectives have been identified: to reveal the essence and interrelation of the concepts of "social security" and "social protection"; explore the peculiarities of social protection and social security during the quarantine period.
Results. Having combined and summarized most of the interpretations and approaches, we can say that there is no common accepted definition of the concepts of "social security" and "social protection of the population", as well as the unity of opinion on their composition, structure and methods of expression. Based on the research conducted, we have created our own vision of the nature of these categories and we believe that they are usually incorrectly interpreted. In our view, the category "social protection" is a broader term, which includes "social security".
The authorities of Ukraine were not ready for the social protection and social security of the population under quarantine. Therefore, most of the management decisions in this area were non-systemic and based on the analogy of countries of the European Union not taking into account national peculiarities. Compared to EU countries, there is insignificant financial reserve in Ukraine, miniscule household wealth accumulation, a weak health-care system, significant imbalances in the structure of small and large businesses. In addition, there are significant numbers of migrant workers and socially vulnerable groups, which have created additional risks.
The measures taken by the Cabinet of Ministers to establish an emergency situation throughout the country were controversial from a legal point of view, as they restricted the constitutional rights of citizens without the imposition of a state of emergency.
A significant part of the population was forced to go on leave with no pay, without receiving any compensation from the state to pay for the utility bills. A similar situation has developed in business, operational activities have actually stopped, although taxes and loan obligations must be paid. Such a situation in which the state imposes additional restrictions and obligations on individuals and entities without fulfilling compensation measures in response, we propose to call a “hybrid emergency”.
Conclusions. In our opinion, to ensure effective social protection of the population under quarantine, it is necessary: To ensure self-isolation of the population who are at risk (over sixty years old, with chronic diseases, weakened immunity, etc.), without setting the limits on healthy working-age citizens. Organize an effective observation for all citizens arriving from countries with an increased epidemic situation. Produce our own disinfectants, overalls and equipment on preferential taxation terms. Maximize contactless payments (by credit cards, phones with an NFC module) in order to limit cash circulation and reduce the risk of transmission of the virus through banknotes. To do this, it is necessary to stimulate the sphere of contactless payments by loyalty programs both for bank customers and for financial institutions themselves; transfer cash issuance of pensions and other social payments to bank card accounts. Arrange the delivery of vital products and goods to vulnerable categories of the population in order to minimize their presence in public places, using the resources of Ukrposhta and territorial centers of social services. Limit the export of important essential food products, in particular buckwheat, wheat, oil, in order to create their stocks in the country for the long term, and improve social security in the country.
We see the prospects for further research in the development of effective methods of social security under quarantine conditions in order to achieve maximum standards of social protection with a minimum restriction of the rights and freedoms of the population.
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