Keywords: motivation, staff, methods of motivation, theory of expectations, needs of employees, stimulation


The article describes the newest methods of motivating staff, not focusing solely on material incentives. The role of incentives in the process of work motivation as specific external irritants is considered. In the article, incentives are also considered as levers of influence, which concentrate certain motives of a person. The theory of expectations of V. Vrum, which states that the employee is obliged to have such needs, which can be significantly satisfied with the result of anticipated rewards, is characterized. The rules that are intended to help increase the motivation of the company's employees are outlined. The growth dynamics of the number of IT specialists in Ukraine and their geographical identity are analyzed. It is revealed that geographically Ukraine is divided into five IT hubs (Kyiv, Odesa, Lviv, Dnipro, Kharkiv), which accumulate 75% of all IT employees in Ukraine. Accordingly, startup projects and the latest developments of the IT-sphere are implemented and based in these hubs. The IT sector employees in Ternopil were interviewed to identify the main factors that influence their motivation. The main age category of employees in IT companies is young people aged 18 to 25 years (68.3%), and 25 to 45 years (31.7%). The number of men working in the IT sector is 63.3% and women - 36.7%, which means that the prevalence of men in the companies surveyed is significant. In our opinion, this situation is explained by the change of priorities in the young generation and the desire of women to develop new professions in the IT field. The largest number of respondents work in companies up to a year, and the least number of employees work at the same company for more than five years, which indicates that the companies have insufficient staff turnover policies. The study confirmed that motivation focused solely on monetary incentives is not sufficient. According to the survey, it was found that professional growth and comfortable psychological climate play no less important role in the motivation of IT professionals than material incentives. Besides, the curiosity of the accomplished tasks, the workplace, stability, free schedule, the ability to work outside the office, the status, and the brand of the company is dramatically important.


1. Vesnyn V.R. (2015) Menedzhment personala [HR Management]. Moscow: Elit -2000 [in Russian].

2. Kolot A.M. (2018) Motyvatsiya, stymulyuvannya y otsinka personalu [Motivation, stimulation and evaluation of staff]. Kyiv: KNEU[in Ukrainian].

3. Kravchyk V.K. (2001) Pro sutnistʹ marketynhu trudovykh resursiv [On the essence of labor marketing]. Visnyk Akademiji praci i socialjnykh vidnosyn Federaciji profspilok Ukrajiny – Bulletin of the Academy of Labor and Social Relations of the Federation of Trade Unions of Ukraine. (Vols. 1), (pp. 18-30) [in Ukrainian].

4. Riznyk V.V. (2010) Suchasni tendentsiyi motyvatsiyi pratsi upravlinsʹkoho personalu [Current trends in the motivation of management staff]. Ekonomichnyj visnyk universytetu – Economic Bulletin of the University. Pereyaslav: Pereyaslav-Khmelnytsky State Pedagogical University named Hryhoriy Skovoroda (Vols. 15/1), (p. 45) [in Ukrainian].

5. Lukashevych J.(2009) Stymulyuvannya personalu yak pidtrymka stratehichnoho rozvytku pidpryyemstva [Stimulating staff to support the strategic development of the enterprise]. Ekonomichnyj visnyk universytetu – Economic Bulletin of the University. Retrieved from: [in Ukrainian].

6. Ivanov S.L (2017) Roli nematerialʹnykh chynnykiv motyvatsiyi pratsi u formuvanni lyudsʹkoho kapitalu suchasnoho pidpryyemstva v Ukrayini. [The role of intangible factors of labor motivation in the formation of human capital of a modern enterprise in Ukraine]. Naukovi pratsi NDFI – Scientific works of NDFI. (Vols. 5), (pp. 22-23) [in Ukrainian].

7. IT market report (2020) Software development in Ukraine: 2019-2020. Retrieved from: [in English].

8. Baran B. (2019) Employee Motivation: Expectancy Theory. Management Minutes: Quick Insights Into Behavior at Work. YouTube. Retrieved from [in English].

9. Isaac, R. G., Zerbe, W.J., & Pitt, D. C. (2018) Leadership and motivation: The effective application of expectancy theory. Journal of Managerial Issues. Vol.13(2), pp. 212-226.

10. Epravda (2019) Kiljkistj IT-specialistiv v Ukrajini zrosla na chvertj [The number of IT specialists in Ukraine has increased by a quarter] Ekonomichna Pravda – Economic Truth. Retrieved from:

11. Vrum V. (1964) Trud i motivatsiya [Expectation theory] N. Y.

12. Khercbergh F., Mosner B., Blokh Snyderman B. (2007) Motyvacyja k rabote [The Motivation to Work]. Per. s anghl. Moskow: Vershyna [in Russian].

13. Makklelland D. (2007) Motivatsiya cheloveka [Human motivation]. SPb.: Piter [in Russian].

14. Maslou A. (2008) Motivatsiya i lichnost' [Motivation and personality]. 3-e izd. per. s angl. SPb.: Piter [in Russian].

15. Kolot A.M. (2012) Motyvatsiya personal [Staff motivation]. Kyiv: KNEU [in Ukrainian].

16. Boghucjkyj O.A. (2005) Faktory rozvytku motyvatsiyi pratsi [Factors of work motivation development]. Ekonomika APK. (Vol. 7.) (pp. 46-47) [in Ukrainian].